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Transnational Communities Programme

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Africans, including Blacks
see also ‘Jews and Blacks’

‘Africans’ is a particularly vague label. At one level it can mean those born, or those who are descended from those born, on the African continent. But many scholars and writers explicitly or implicitly exclude the countries that border the Mediterranean Sea. North Africa is often treated as part of the Middle East (what the French call the Near East), as part of a common cultural and historical area of the countries bordering the Mediterranean basin (following Braudel) or as sui generis, usually under the name ‘the Maghreb’. None the less, a powerful ‘Afrocentric’ movement in the USA, which inherited the mantle of the black power movement of the 1960s and 1970s, sought the aggrandisement of the expression ‘Africa’ beyond the sub-Sahara. Africa is depicted not only as the home of Homo sapiens (a claim that can be supported by scholarly evidence), but also as the site where western mathematics and philosophy originated –via Egypt to Greece. Such claims which have long been advanced by African-American scholars were given some respectability and popularity by Bernal’s (19??) influential book.

A second complication is that relying on place of birth (jus soli) to define ‘African’ could also include the substantial number of white Africans, particularly in the southern half of the continent. In the post-apartheid period, many of the country’s whites as well as those of mixed descent have sought to emphasise their identification with Africa and their distance from Europe. Even those who predominantly voted for the pro-apartheid regime none the less described themselves as ‘Afrikaners’ – the Dutch-derived word for ‘Africans’.

The issue of Maghrebi, Egyptian and white and mixed South African Africans cannot easily be resolved in a bibliographic note, so it is pertinent simply to state that for the purposes of collecting material for this bibliography ‘African’ meant people living in sub-Saharan Africa who are phenotypically dark.

If anything ‘Blacks’ is an even more confusing than ‘Africans’, but as it is used in the references collected it is necessary to be precise about what we included in the category. To start, there is a significant difference between the use of the expression in the USA and in Europe, particularly in Britain. In the USA, the term applies fairly strictly to US residents of African and (generally) slave origin. The expressions ‘Negro’, ‘Coloured’ and ‘Afro-American’ have also been used to describe this group. Currently the favoured self-description, which is also coming into general use, is ‘African American’, sometimes hypehenated as ‘African-American’. Groups of original African descent but who have come from the Caribbean are often designated as ‘West Indians’ or ‘Caribbeans’ – or by their country of origin: thus ‘Cubans’, ‘Jamaicans’ ‘Puerto Ricans’, etc. Two additional complications arise. ... Particularly those associated with the

 Bibliography

Azevado, Mario (ed.) (1993) Africana studies: a survey of Africa and the African diaspora, Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press

Burkett, Randell K. et al. (1991) Black biography 1790-1950: a cumulative index, Alexandria: Chadwyck-Healey

Debrunner, Hans-Werner (1979) Presence and prestige: a history of Africans in Europe before 1918, Basel: Baseler Afrika Bibliographien (Extensive bibliography and 154 biographies)

Elliot, Lorris (ed.) (1985) The bibliography of literary writings by blacks in Canada, Toronto: William-Wallace Publishers

Gordon, Jacob Mofe Sr (1977) African studies at Kansas, 1965-75: a selection of doctoral dissertations on black history, Africa and the African diaspora, Lawrence: Department of African Studies, University of Kansas

Govia, Francine (1988) Blacks in Canada in search of the promise: a bibliographic guide to the history of blacks in Canada, Edmonton, Alberta: Harambee Centres Canada

Research Resources and Organisations

  • Brown, Larrissa V. (1988) Africans in the New World. 1493-1834, Providence, RI: John Carter Brown Library (Catalogue, etc. of the exhibition mounted at the library)
  • Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies (1972-) Continuing catalogue of the Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies, North-western Library, and African in selected libraries (Boston: G. K. Hall)
  • Walker, James W. St. G. (1980) A history of blacks in Canada: a study guide for teachers and students, Ottawa: Minister of State Multiculturalism

References

Aguirre Beltran, Gonzalo (1972) La poblacion negra de Mexico, Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Economica

Albernathy, A. T. (1910) The Jews and Negroes: being a study of the Jewish ancestry from an impartial standpoint, Morarian Falls, NC: Dixie Publishing J&B

Albernathy, A. T. (1910) The Jews and Negroes: being a study of the Jewish ancestry from an impartial standpoint, Morarian Falls, NC: Dixie Publishing J&B

Andall, J.M. (1997) ‘Catholic and State constructions of domestic workers: The case of Cape Verdean women in Rome in the 1970s’ in Khalid Koser and Helga Lutz (eds) New Migration in Europe: Social Constructions and Social Realities. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Anderson, C. G. (1993) En route to transitional postmodernism: Grace Jones, Josephine Baker and the African diaspora, Social Science Information

Andrews, George Reid (1980) The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1800-1900, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press

Anon. (1978) The history of my ancestors: island of San Lazzaro
Introduction by editor comprising multidisciplinary collection of articles analysing the national and international events threatening relations between Afro–Americans and Jews J&B

Anon (1994) ‘Opinion racism and tribalism. A dilemma for Africans at home and in the diaspora’, West Africa, 3992

Anstey, Roger (1975) The Atlantic slave trade and British abolition, 1760-1810, London: Macmillan

Aptheker, Herbert (1940) The Negro in the American Revolution, New York: International Publishers

Aptheker, Herbert (1963) ‘American Negro slave revolts’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally, New York: International Publishers

Austen, Ralph A. (1994) ‘The uncomfortable relationship: African enslavement in the common history of Blacks and Jews’, Tikkus, 9 (2), 65-86 J&B

Awoonor, K. (1992) Comes the voyager at last: a tale of return to Africa, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press

Ayandele, E. A. (1970) Holy Johnson: pioneer of African nationalism, 1836-1917, London: Cass

Azevedo, M. (ed.) (1993) Africana studies: a survey of Africa and the African diaspora, Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press

Banaji, D. R. (1932) Bombay and the Sidis, London: Macmillan

Banton, Michael P. (1955) The coloured quarter: Negro immigrants in an English city, London: Cape

Bascom, William Russell (1972) Shango in the New World, Austin: University of Texas Press

Bascom, William Russell (1980) Sixteen cowries: Yoruba divination from Africa to the New World, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Bascom, William Russell (1992) African folktales in the New World, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Bascom, William Russell and Melville J. Herskovits (eds) (1958) Continuity and change in African cultures, Chicago: Chicago University Press [to anotate]

Bastide, Roger (1960) Les religion africaines au Brésil: vers une sociologie de interpenetrations de civilisations, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France

Bastide, Roger (1972) African civilisations in the New World, London: Christopher Hurst

Basu, Helen (2000) Theatre of memory: Performances of ritual kinship of the Afircan Diaspora in Sind/Pakistan. In Culture, creation and procreation in south Asia. Aparna Rao and Monika Boeck (eds). Pp 243-270.  Oxford: Berghahn.

Basu, Helene (2001) Slave, soldier, trader, fakir: Fragments of African histories in Gujarat. In The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Richard Pankhurst (ed.). Red Sea Press.

Beckles, Hilary (1989) Natural rebels: a social history of enslaved black women in Barbados, London: Zed Books

Beckwith, M. W. (1929) Black roadways, a study of Jamaican folk life, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press

Béhague, Gerard H. (ed.) (1994) Music and black ethnicity: the Caribbean and South America, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books

Berlin, Ira and Ronald Hoffman (1983) Slavery and freedom in the age of the American Revolution, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia

Berson, L. E. (1971) The Negroes and the Jews, New York: Random House
Survey of alliance of blacks and Jews from pre-Civil War to present, individual struggles for identity, justice and freedom

Billingsley, A. (1968) ‘Black families in White America’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The Black woman cross-culturally

Blyden, E. W. (1898) The Jewish Question, Liverpool: Lionel Hart and Co.

Blyden, E. W. (1967) Christianity, Islam and the Negroe race, Edinburgh: University Press (originally printed in 1887)

Blyden, Edward Wilmot and Hollis Ralph Lynch (eds) (1971) Black spokesman: selected published writings of Edward Wilmot Blyden, London: Cass

Bonnett, Aubrey W. and C. Llewellyn Watson (eds) (1990) Emerging perspectives on the black diaspora, Lanham, MD: University Press of America

Brandon, George (1993) Santeria from Africa to the New World: The dead sell memories, Bloomington : Indiana University Press

Brock, (1996) ‘Questioning the diaspora: hegemony, black intellectuals and doing international history from below’, Issue, 24 (2), 9-12

Brooks, William S. (1899) What a black man saw in a white man’s country: some account of a trip to the land of the midnight sun, Mineapolis: W.S. Porooles

Brotz, H. (1964) The Black Jews of Harlem: Negro nationalism and the dilemmas of Negro leadership, New York: Free Press of Glencoe
Black Jews appear in NYC in 1915

Brydon, L. (1985) ‘Ghanaian Responses to the Nigerian Expulsion of 1983’, African Affairs, 84 (337), 561-85

Buncombe, Marie H. (1988) ‘CLA’s second half-century: language and literature in the black diaspora’, CLA Journal, (32), 1–9

Bush, B. (1990) Slave women in Caribbean society, 1650-1832, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Cade, T. (1970) ‘The black woman: an anthology’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally, New York: New American Library

Campbell, Horace (1988) Rasta and resistance: from Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney, Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House

Campbell, M. (1977) ‘Marronage in Jamaica: its origin in the seventeenth century’ in Vera Rubin et al (eds) Comparative perspectives on slavery in New World plantation societies, New York: New York Academy Sciences

Carreira, A. (1982) The people of the Caper Verde islands, London: Hurst and Company

Cherry, Robert (1990) ‘Middleman minority theories: their implementations for Black-Jewish relation’, Journal of Ethnic Studies, 17 (4), 117-138

Christian, B. (1985) Black feminist criticism: perspectives on Black women writers, Oxford: Pergamon Press

Clairmont, Donald H. J. (1970) Nova Scotian blacks: a historical and structural overview, Halifax: Dalhousie University Press

Conniff, M. L. (1994) Africans in the Americas: a history of the black diaspora, New York: St Martin’s Press [to anotate]

Cromwell, Adelaide M. and Martin Kilson (eds) (1969) Aporpos of Africa: sentiments of Negroe American leaders on Africa from the 1800s to the 1950s, London: Frank Cass

Cromwell, Adelaide M. (1987) An African Victorian feminist: the life and times of Adelaide Smith Casely Hayford, 1868-1960, London: Frank Cass

Cromwell, Adelaide M. (ed.) (1987) Dynamics of the African/Afro-American connection: from dependency to self-reliance, Washington: Howard University Press

Curtin, Philip D. (1970) The Atlantic slave trade: a census, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press [to anotate]

Curtin, Phillip D. (ed.) (1972) Africa and the West: intellectual responses to European culture, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press

Dalby, D. (1971) ‘Ashanti survivals in the language and traditions of the Winward Maroons of Jamaica’, African Language Studies, (12)

Daley, P. (1996)’ Black-Africans: students who stayed ‘ in Peach, C. (ed.), Ethnicity in the 1991 Census: Vol 2, The ethnic minority populations of Great Britain (HMSO)

Dathorne, O. R. et al. (1992) ‘Traditional spirituality in the African diaspora’, Journal of Caribbean Studies, 9(1-2), Lexington, KY: Association of Caribbean Studies

Davis, Angela (1982) Women, race and class, London: Women’s Press [to anotate]

Davis, Angela (1990) Angela Davies: an autobiography, London: Women’s Press

Davis, Sammy J. and Burt Boyar (1989) Why me? The autobiography of Sammy Davis Jr., London: Michael Joseph

Daye, Sharon J. (1991) Middle class blacks in Britain: a racial fraction of a class group or a class fraction of a racial group, Basingstoke: Macmillan

Debrunner, Hans-Werner (1979) Presence and prestige: a history of Africans in Europe before 1918, Basel: Baseler Afrika Bibliographen

Delaney, M. R. (1952) ‘The condition, elevation, emigration and destiny of the colored people of the United States’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally, Philadelphia

Diawara, Manthia (1992) African cinema: politics and culture, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Diop, Cheikh Diop (1991) Civilisation or barbarism: an authentic anthropology, New York: Lawrence Hill Books

Drachler, Jacob (ed.) (1975) Black homeland, black diaspora: cross currents of the African relationship, Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press

Drake, St. Clair (1975) 'The Black diaspora in Pan-African perspective', Black scholar, 7 (1), 2-13

Drake, St. Clair (1993) 'Diaspora studies and Pan-Africanism' in Joseph E. Harris (ed.) Global dimensions of the African diaspora, Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 451-514

Early, J.C (1996) "Culture [wars]" and the African diaspora: challenge the opportunity for U.S. museums, Issue, 24 (2), 31-33

Edmondson, Locksley (1986) 'Black America as a mobilising diaspora: some international implications' in Gabriel Sheffer (ed.) Modern diasporas in international politics, London: Croom Helm, 164-212

Edwards, B. (1796) Observations on the dispositions, character, manners, and habits of life of the Maroon Negroes of the island of Jamaica, London: John Stockdale

Esedebe, P. Olisamwuche (1994) Pan-Africanism: the idea and the movement, 1776-1963, Washington DC: Howard University Press

Fardon, R.O. (1996) ‘Ethnicity, the person and the problem of "identity" in West Africa’ in Ian Fowler and David Zeitlyn (eds), African Crossroads: intersections between History and Anthropology in Cameroon, Oxford: Berghahn, 17-44

Fasi, M. E. et al. (1988) African from the 7th to 11th Century, Berkerley: University of California Press See article on Africans in Diaspora in Asia

Fogel, Robert William et al. (1974) Time on the cross: the economics of American negro slavery, Boston: Little & Brown

Forbes, Jack D. (1988) Black Africans and native Americans: Color, race and caste in the evolution of Red-Black peoples, Oxford: Basil Blackwell

Francis, Armet (1985) The black triangle: the people of the African diaspora, London: Seed

Franklin, J. H. (1956) ‘From slavery to freedom’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally,

Frazier, E.F. (1966) ‘The negro family in the United States’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Frucht, R. (ed.) (1971) Black society in the New World, New York: Random House

Fryer, P. (1984) Staying power: the History of Black people in Britain, London: Pluto

Gates, Henry Louis (1987) Figures in black: words, signs and the ‘racial’ self, New York: Oxford University Press

Gates, Henry Louis (1988) The signifying monkey: a theory of Afro-American literary theory, New York: Oxford University Press

Gates, Henry Louis (1992) ‘Race’, writing and difference, Chicago: Chicago University Press

Gates, Henry Louis (1992) Loose canons: notes on the culture wars, New York: Oxford University Press

Gates, Henry Louis (1994) Colored people: a memoir, New York: Knopf

Gates, Henry Louis (ed.) (1987) The classic slave narratives, New York: New American Library

Gates, Henry Louis (ed.) (1990) Reading black, reading feminist, New York: Meridan Books

Gates, Henry Louis and Sunday Ogbonna Anozie (eds) (1984) Black literature and literary theory, New York: Methuen

Geltman, M. (1970) The confrontation: Black power, anti-Semitism and the myth of interpretation, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall J&B

Genovese, E. (1972) ‘Roll, Jordan, roll: The world the slaves made’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.), The black woman cross-culturally, New York: Random House

Gilroy, Paul (1987) ‘There ain’t no black in the union jack’: the cultural politics of race and nation, London: Hutchinson

Gilroy, Paul (1993) The Black Atlantic: modernity and double consciousness, London: Verso

Gilroy, Paul (1993) Small acts: thoughts on the politics of black cultures, London: Serpent's Tail

Glasgow, Roy Arthur (1970) Guyana: race and politics among Africans and east Indians, The Hague: M. Nijhoff

Goings, Kenneth W. (1990) The NAACP comes of age: the defeat of Judge John J. Parker, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Gollock, G. A. (1969) Daughters of Africa, New York: Negro University Press (reprint of the 1932 edition)

Goode, Kenneth G. and Winthorpe, D. J. (1969) From Africa to the United States and then... A concise Afro-American history, Glenview, IL: Scott

Gray, John (ed.) (1989) Ashe, traditional religion and healing in sub-Saharan Africa and the diaspora: a classified international bibliography, London: Greenwood Press

Grossman, James R. (1989) Land of hope: Chicago: black southerners and the great migration, Chicago: Chicago University Press

Gundara, Jagdish and Duffield, Ian (eds) (1992) Essays on the history of the blacks in Britain, Aldershot: Avebury

Gutman, H. (1972) ‘The black family in slavery and freedom, 1750-1925’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally, New York: Oxford University Press

Hall, William S and Freedle, Roy O. (1978) Culture and language: the black American experience, Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Co.

Hamilton, Ruth S. (ed.) (1990) Creating a paradigm and research agenda for comparative studies of the worldwide dispersion of African peoples, East Lansing: Michigan State University

Hamm, Charles (1988) Afro-American music, South Africa apartheid, Brooklyn, NY: Conservatory of Music, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

Hannerz, Ulf (1969) ‘Soulside: Inquiries into ghetto culture and community’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally, New York: Columbia University Press

Harries, P. (1994) Work, culture and identity. Migrant labourers in Mozambique and South Africa c. 1860-1910, London: James Currey

Harris, Joseph E.(1971) The African presence in Asia: consequences of the east African slave trade, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press

Harris, Joseph E. (ed.) (1974) Pillars in Ethiopian history and Africa and Africans as seen by classical writers, Washington: Howard University Press

Harris, Joseph E. (1976) Perspectives on the changing relationship between Afro-Americans and Africa, Khartoum, Sudan: Institute of African and Asian studies, University of Khartoum

Harris, Joseph E. (1987) Repatriates and refugees in a colonial society: the case of Kenya, Washington, DC: Howard University Press

Harris, Joseph E. (1993) Global dimensions of the African diaspora, Washington DC: Howard University Press

Harris, Joseph E. (1993) 'Introduction' in Joseph E. Harris (ed.) Global dimensions of the African diaspora, Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 3-8 [to annotate]

Harris, Joseph E. (1994) African-American reactions to war in Ethiopia, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press

Harris, J. (1996) ‘African diaspora studies: some international dimensions’, Issue, 17 (2),6-8

Harris, L. et al. (1970) Black Jewish relations in New York City, New York: Praeger

Harrison, Faye V. (1988) 'Introduction: an African diaspora perspective for urban anthropology', Urban Anthropology, 7 (2-3), 111-141

Harrison, FV (1988) 'An African diaspora perspective for urban anthropology (introduction to special issue ''Black folks in cities here and there - changing patterns of domination and response''), Urban Anthropology, 17 (2-3), 111-141

Head, J. (1995) ‘Migrant mine labour from Mozambique: employment prospects and policy options in the 1990s’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 13 (1),

Henderson, John P. and Reed, Harry A. (1989) Studies in the African diaspora: a memorial to James A Hooker, Dover, MA: Majority Press

Henriquez, F. M. (1953) ‘Family and colour in Jamaica’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally, London: Eyre and Spottiswoode

Henry, Charles P. (1990) Culture and African American politics, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Herskovits, Melville J. (1937) Life in Haitian valley, New York: Alfred A. Knopf

Herskovits, Melville J. (1941) ‘The myth of the negro past’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.) The black woman cross-culturally, New York: Harper

Herskovits, Melville Jean and Frances Shapiro Herskovits (1947) Trinidad village, New York: Alfred A. Knopf

Herskovits, Melville Jean (ed.) (1961) The New World Negro: selected papers in Afro-America studies, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Hentoff, N. (ed.) (1970) Black anti-Semitism and Jewish racism, NY: Schocken Books J&B
Essays by Blacks and Jewish, many prominent writers most of the essays have appeared elsewhere in periodicals.

Hill, Daniel G. (1981) The freedom-seekers: Blacks in early Canada, Agincourt, Canada: Book Society of Canada

Hirsh, Arnold R. (1990) Making the second ghetto: race and housing in Chicago, 1940–1960, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Holloway, Jospeh E. (1990) Africanisms in American culture, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Hooks, Rosie Lee (ed.) (1986) Black people and their culture: selected writings from the African diaspora, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute

Horton, J. A. (1969) West African countries and peoples, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press (originally printed in 1868)

Hull, G. T. (1987) Color, sex and poetry: three women writers of the Harlem Renaissance, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Hunwick, J. O. (1992) ‘Black slaves in the Mediterranean world: introduction to a neglected aspect of the African diaspora’, Slavery and Abolition, (13), 5-38

Hymans, J. L. (1971) Léopold Sédar Senghor: an intellectual biography, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Ifill, Max (1986) The African diaspora: a drama of human exploitation, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: Economic and Business Research

Inkori, Joseph and Stanley L. Engerman (eds) (1992) The Atlantic slave trade: effects on economies, societies and peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe, Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Irwin, Graham W. (ed.) (1977) Africans abroad: a documentary history of the black diaspora in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean during the age of slavery, New York: Colombia University Press

Isaacs, H. J. (1963) The New World of Negro Americans, London: Pheonix House

Jalloh, A., Maizlish, S.E. and Christopher Fyfe (eds) (1997) ‘The African diaspora [review]’ Journal of Arican History, 38, (2)

Johnson, Charles R. (1988) Being and race: Black writing since 1970, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Johnson Odim, C. (1996) ‘Mirror images and shared standpoints: Black women in Africa and in the African diaspora’, Issue, 24, (2),18-22

Johnston, Harry, Sir (1910) The negro in the New World, London: Methuen

July, Robert W. (1967) The origins of modern African thought, London: Faber

Kaplan, Steven (1992) The Beta Israel (Falasha) in Ethiopia: from earliest times to the twentieth century, New York: New York University Press

Katz,S. (ed.) (1967) Negro and Jew: an encounter in America, a symposium complied by Midstream magazine, New York: Macmillan

Killingray, David (ed.) (1992) Africans in Britain, London: Frank Cass

Kilson Martin L. and Robert I. Rotberg (eds) (1976) The African diaspora: interpretative essays, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

King, J. E. (1992) ‘Diaspora literacy and consciousness in the struggle against miseducation in the black community’, Journal of Negro Education, 61 (3)

Kiple, Kenneth F. (1987) The African exchange: towards a biological history of black people, Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Kiple, Kenneth F. and King, Virginia H. (1981) Another dimension to the black diaspora: diet, disease and racism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Assesses how the impact of the West African disease environment effected both aboriginal and white population. Investigates epidemiological and social history of black health and white medical practice in the US during the antebellum period, establishing a link between black-related diseases and white racism)

Kopytoff, B. (1976) ‘The development of Jamaican Maroon ethnicity’, Caribbean Quarterly, (22)

Koser, K. (1997), 'Information and repatriation: the case of Mozambican refugees in Malawi', Journal of Refugee Studies, 10 (1), 1-18

Koser, K. (1996) 'Information and refugee migration: the case of Mozambican refugees in Malawi', Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 87 (5), 407-18

Laboritz, S. (1995) Attitudes towards Blacks and Jews, San Francisco: R & E Research Associates

Lake, Obiagele (1995) ‘Toward a pan-African identity: diaspora African repatriates in Ghana’ in Anthropological quarterly, 68 (1)

Langley, J. A. (1973) Pan-Africanism and nationalism in West Africa, 1900-45: a study in ideology and social classes, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Lemelle, Sidney J. and Robin D. G. Kelly (1994) Imagining home: class, culture and nationalism in the African diaspora, London: Verso

Lewis, Earl (1995) ‘To turn on a pivot: writing African Americans into a history of overlapping diasporas’, American historical review, 100 (3), 765–87

Little, K. (1972) ‘Negroes in Britain: study of race relations in English society’, revised edition in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.), The black woman cross-culturally, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul

LoBagola, Bata Kindai Amgoza Ibn (1930) An African savage’s own story, New York: A. A. Knopf

MacRobert, Iain (1988) The black roots and white racism of early Pentecostalism in the USA, Basingstoke: Macmillan

Makonnen, R. (1973) Pan-Africanism from within, Nairobi: Oxford University Press

Mandiela, Ahdri Zhina (1991) Dark diaspora: a dub theartre piece, Canada: Black Women and Women of ColourPress

Marks, Carole (1989) Farewell – we’re good and gone: the great black migration, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Martin, M.T. (ed.) (1995) Cinemas of the Black diaspora, Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press

Mathurin, L. (1975) The rebel woman in the British West Indies during slavery, Kingston: African-Caribbean Publications

McFeely, William S. (1991) Frederick Douglass, New York: Norton

McGary, Howard and Lawson Bill E. (1992) Between slavery and freedom: philosophy and American slavery, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

McGregor, J. (1994) ‘People without fathers: Mozambicans in Swaziland 1888-1993’, Journal of Southern African Studies 20 (4), 343-367

Michaelson, Maureen (1979) 'The relevance of caste among East African Gujaratis in Britain', New Community, 7, 3, 350-360

Mintz, Sidney Wilford et al. (1977) An anthropological approach to the Afro-American past: a Caribbean perspective, Philadelphia: ISHI Occasional Papers in Social Change

Moynihan, D. P. (1965) ‘The Negro family: the case for national action’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.), The black woman cross-culturally, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office

Mullin, G. (1972) ‘Fight and rebellion’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.), The black woman cross-culturally, New York: Oxford University Press

Murphy, Joseph M. (1994) Working the spirit: ceremonies of the African diaspora, Boston, MA.: Beacon Press

Nascimento, A. D. (1969) Brazil: mixture or massacre? Essays in the genocide of a black people, Dover, MA: The Majority Press

Nascimento, A D. (1977) Racial democracy in Brazil: myth or reality. A dossier of Brazilian racism, Ibdan: Sketch Publishing Co.

Nascimento, A. D. et al. (1992) Africans in Brazil: a pan African perspective, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press

Nwolise, O. B. C. (1992) ‘Blacks in the diaspora: a case of neglected catalysts in the achievement of Nigeria’s foreign policy goals’, Journal of Black Studies, Bowker-Saur, 23 (1), 1-17

Pachai, Bridglal (1991) Beneath the clouds of the promised land: the survival of Nova Scotia’s blacks, Nova Scotia: Black Educators Association of Nova Scotia

Pappademos, M. (1996) ‘Romancing the stone: academ’s illusive template for African diaspora studies’, Issue, 24(2), 38-39

Patterson, S. (1963) ‘Dark strangers’ in The black woman cross-culturally, by Steady, F. C., London: Tavistock

Peil, M. (1995) ‘Ghanaians Abroad’, African Affairs, 94, 345-367

Phillips, W. M. J. (1991) An unillustrious alliance: the African American and Jewish American communities, New York: Greenwood Press

Philpott, Thomas L. (1978) The slum and the ghetto: Immigrants, blacks and reformers - Chicago, 1880-1930, New York: Oxford University Press

Pieterse, Jan Nerderveen (1995) White on black: images of Africa and blacks in western popular culture, New Haven: Yale University Press

Pitts, Walter F. (1993) Old ship of Zion: Afro-Baptist ritual in the African diaspora, New York: Oxford University Press

Pluchon, P. (1984) Nègres et Juifs au XVIIIe siècle, Paris: Tallandier

Price, R. (ed.) (1973) Maroon societies: rebel slave communities in the Americas, New York: Anchor/Doubleday

Price, R. (1973) Saramaka social structure: analysis of "bush negro" society, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico

Quarles, B. (1964) ‘The negro in the making of America’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.), The black woman cross-culturally, London: Collier-MacMillan

Roberts, J. S. (1972) ‘Black music of two worlds’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.), The black woman cross-culturally, New York: Praeger Publishers

Rogers, Joel Augustus (1991) Africa’s gift to America: the Afro-Americans in the making and saving of the United States, New York: H. M. Rogers

Rose, Phyllis (1991) Jazz Cleopatra: Josephine Baker in her time, London: Vintage

Rule, S. P. (1994) ‘A second phase diaspora: South African migration to Australia’, Geoforum, 25 (1)

Scott, David (1991) 'That event, this memory: Notes on the anthropology of African diasporas in the New World', Diaspora, 1 (3), 261-284

Scott, William Randolph (1992) The sons of Sheba’s Race: African-Americans and the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935-41, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Segal, Ronald (1995) The black diaspora, London: Faber & Faber [to anotate]

Shepperson, G. (1968) ‘The African abroad or the African diaspora’ in T.O. Ranger (ed.) Emerging themes in African history, Nairobi: East Africa Publishing House

Shepperson, George (1993) 'African diaspora: concept and context' in Joseph E. Harris (ed.) Global dimensions of the African diaspora, Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 41-49

Smith, Raymond T. (1956) The negro family in British Guiana, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul

Snowden, Frank M. (1970) Blacks in antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco - Roman experience, Cambridge, MA.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press

Sorenson, John (1991) ‘Politics of social identity: "Ethiopians in Canada"’, Journal of Ethnic Studies, 19 (1), 67–86

Sorenson, J. (1992) ‘Essence and contingency in the construction of nationhood: transformations of identity in Ethiopia and its diasporas’, Diasporas, 2 (2) 202-230

Steady, F. C. (ed.) (1981) The black woman cross-culturally: an overview, Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Company

Stemons, J. S. (1941) As victims to victims: an American Negro laments with Jews, New York: Fortuny’s
Sympathies from a Black man to Jews in this plight

Stuart, Ossie (1997) 'African diaspora religion' in John Hinnells (ed.) A new handbook of living religions, Oxford: Blackwell, 690-727

Styron, W. (1967) ‘The confession of Nat Turner’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.), The black woman cross-culturally, New York: Random House

Sundquist, Eric J. (ed.) (1990) Frederick Douglass: new literary and historical essays, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Sutcliffe, David and Wong, Ansel (eds) (1986) The language of the black experience: cultural expression through word and sound in the Caribbean and black Britain, Oxford: Blackwell

Sweeney, William A. (1970) History of the American negro in the great World War...etc, New York: Johnson Reprint

Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn et al. (eds) (1987) Women in Africa and the African diaspora, Washington DC: Howard University Press

Ter Haar, G. (1995) ‘Strangers in the Promised Land: African Christians in Europe', Exchange, 24(1), 1-33

Thomson, Colin A. (1979) Blacks in deep snow: Black pioneers in Canada, Don Mills, Ontario: J. M. Dent

Thompson, L. A. and Ferguson, Lloyd John (1969) Africa in classical antiquity: nine studies, Ibadan: Ibadan University Press

Thompson, Vincent Bakpetu (1988) The making of the African diaspora in the Americas 1441–1900, Harlow: Longman [to anotate]

Trotter, Joe William (ed.) (1991) The great migration in historical perspective: new dimensions of race, class, and gender, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press

Tuelon, A. (1973) ‘Nanny-Maroon chieftainess’, Caribbean Quarterly, (19)

Turner, W. Burglard and Turner, Joyce Moore (eds) (1988) Richard B. Moore, Caribbean militant in Harlem: collected writings, 1920-1972, Bloomington : Indiana University Press

Uya, Okon Edet (1992) African diaspora and the black experience in New World slavery, New Rochelle, NY: Third Press Publishers (rev. ed)

Walker, Melissa (1991) Down from the mountaintop: Black women’s novels in the wake of the civil rights movement, 1966-1989, New Haven, CN: Yale University Press

Walters, Ronald W. (1993) Pan Africanism in the African diaspora: an analysis of modern Afrocentric political movemnets, Detroit: Wayne State

Washington, R. J. (1984) Jews in black perspectives: a dialogue, Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses

Washington, Joseph R. Jr (ed.) (1990) Jews in black perspectives: a dialogue, Lanham, MD: University Press of America
Introduction by editor comprising multidisciplinary collection of articles analysing the national and international events threatening relations between Afro–Americans and Jews

Weatherby, W. J. (1990) James Baldwin: artist on fire: a portrait, London: Michael Joseph

Webb, JH.L.A. (1995) ‘The evolution of the Idaw al-Hajj commercial diaspora’, Cahiers d’etudes africaines, 35/2-3 (138-139), 455-476

Weik, T. (1997) ‘The archaeology of Maroon societies in the Americas: resistance, cultural continuity, and transformation in the African diaspora’, Historical archaeology, 31(2), 81-92

Weisbord, R. G. et al. (1970) Bittersweet encounter: the Afro-American and the American Jew, Westport, CT: Negro Universities Press
Historical relation for pre World War to 1965

Weisbard, Robert G. (1973) Ebony kinslip: Africa, Africa to the Afro-America, Westport, CON: Greenwood Press

Wekker, G. (1993) ‘Mati-ism and black lesbianism: two idealtypical expressions of female homosexuality in black communities of the diaspora’, Journal of Homosexuality, Bowker-Saur, 24(3-4),145

Werbner, Pnina and Anwar, Muhammad (eds) (1991) Black and ethnic leaderships in Britain: the cultural dimensions of political action, London: Routledge

Wilentz, Gay Alden (1992) Binding cultures: Black women writers in Africa and the diaspora, Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Williams, E. (1944) ‘Capitalism and slavery’ in Filomina Chioma. Steady (ed.), The black woman cross-culturally, New York: Capricorn Books

Williams, Lorraine A. (ed.) (1977) Africa and the Afro-American experience: eight essays, Washington: Howard University Press

Williams, Vernon J. (1989) From a caste to a minority: changing attitudes of American sociologists toward Afro–Americans, 1896–1945, New York: Greenwood Press

Winks, Robin W. (1971) The blacks in Canada: a history, New Haven: Yale University Press

Wintz, Cory D. (1988) Black culture and the Harlem Renaissance, Houston, TX.: Rice University Press

Zack Williams, T. (1995) ‘African development and African diaspora: separate concerns?’, Review of African Political Economy 22(65), 349-358

Zack Williams, A.B., (1997) ‘African diaspora conditioning: the case of Liverpool’, Journal of Black Studies, 27(4), 528-542

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Africans (Magreb)

Bibliographies

Nassé, Simon (1986) L'emigration maghrébine de 1962 à 1985: répertoire bibliographique, Travaux et documents de l' I.R.E.M.A.M, 1, Aix-en-Provence: C.N.R.S, Universités d'Aix-Marceille, Institut de Recherches et d'études sur le monde arabe et musulman

 

Ten Best Books

Ben, Jelloun (1997) Hospitalite Francaise: racisme et immigration maghrbine, Seuil

Gross, Joan, David McMurray, and Ted Swedenburg (1994) 'Arab noise and Ramadan nights: Rai, Rap and Franco-Magrebi identity', Diaspora, 3 (1), 3-41

Hargreaves, A. (1997) Immigration and identity in Beur fiction: voices from the North African immigrant communities in France, Oxford: Berg

Trayano, Perez (1998) Los otros emigrantes: alteridad e inmigracion, Malaga: Universidad de Malaga

Weber, E. (1989) Maghreb arabe et occident francais: jalons pour une (re) connaissance interculturelle, Paris: Publisud

References:

 Begag, Azouz (1990) North African immigrants in France: the socio-spatial representation of 'here' and 'there', Loughborough: European Research Centre

Cesari, Jocelyne (1994) Résaux transnationaux entre l'Europe et le Maghreb, Correspondances, Bulletin de l'IRMC, 15, 10-14

Fellat, F. (1995), 'Moroccan scientists abroad; Les Scientifiques marocaines a l'etranger' Etudes-Migrations, 32(117), 200-210

Foltorino, Eric (1995) Mille et un soleils, Paris: Stock

Geisser, Vincent 91997) Ethnicite republicaine: les elites d'origine maghrebiene dans les systeme poltique francais, Paris: Presses de Sciences

Hallaj, Abdel Rahim Hassan (1993) 'Rai, Rap, and Ramadan Nights: Franco Maghribi Cultural Identities', Middle East Report, Sep/Oct, 11-16

Jazouli, Adil (1984) 'Les Maghrebins de France a la croisee des chemins', Combats pour la diaspora, 15, 31-38

Jazouli, Adil (1982) La nouvelle generation de l'immigration maghrebine: essai d'analyse sociologique, Paris: Centre d'Information et d'Etudes sur les Migrations

Leveau, Remy and Dominique Schnapper (1987) 'Religion et politique: juifs et musulmans maghrebins en France', Revue francaise de science politique, Decembre, 855-84

Lopez Gargia, Bernabe (1992) Inmigracion magrebi en Espana: el retorno de los moriscos, Madrid: Ed. Mapfre

Mazouz, M. (1988), Les Marocains en Ile-de-France, Paris: CIEMI

Morsy, Magali (1984) Les Nord-Africains en France, Paris: Centre des Hautes Etudes sur L'Afrique et l'Asie Modernes

Plucken-Opolka, R. (1985), Zur sozialen Lage marrokanischer Familien in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Leske&Buderich:Dusseldorf

Salih, Ruba (1999) 'Shifting meanings of "home": Consumption and identity in Moroccan women's transnational practices between Italy and Morocco', Paper for the conference "New approaches to migration, transnational communities and the transformation of home", University of Sussex, 21-22 September 1999

Shokeid, Moshe (1971) The dual heritage: immigration from the Atlas Mountains in an Israeli village, Manchester: Manchester University Press

Simon, G. et al. (1990), Les effets des migrations internationales sur les payes d'origine: le cas de Maghreb, Paris: SEDES

Sporton, D. (1996) 'Migrant networks and community development: Moroccan migration to France', in M. L. Gentileschi and R. King (eds) Questioni di populazione in Europa: una perspective geografica. Population issues in Europe: a geographical perspective, Bologna: Patron, 53-69

Sraieb, Noureddine (1985) Le mouvement ouvrier maghrebin, Paris: Ed. du centre national de la recherche scientifique

Weber, A. (1992), Zur soziokulturellen Situation der Marrokaner in Frankfurt, Frankfurt a M.: Campus

Weigt, C. (1994), 'Junge Marrokaner zwischen Schule, Betrieb und Konstabler Wache', Gemeinsam, 28

Wihol de Wenden, C. (1995) 'Generational Change and political participation in French Suburbs', New Community, 21, 69-78

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