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Transnational Communities Programme

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Arabs (Middle East)


Auchterlonie, Paul (1987) Arabic bibliographical dictionaries: a summary guide and bibliography, Durham: Middle East Libraries Committee

Feodorov, Ioana (1994) The presence of the Arab world in Romania: a bibliography, 1964-1984, Bucuresti: Chris Book Universal


Ten Best Books

Abraham, S. and Abraham N. (eds) (1983) Arabs in the New World, Detroit: Wayne State University

Ashkenasi, A. (1992) Palestinian identities: Israel’s and Jerusalem’s Arabs, New York: Praeger

Chiha, Michel (1966) Lebanon at home and abroad, Beirut

Hitti, Philip (1924) The Syrians in America, New York: George H. Doran

Hourani, Albert and Shehadi, N. (eds) (1992) The Lebanese in the world: a century of emigration, London: I. B. Taurus

Tauber, Eliezer (1993) The Arab movements in World War I, London: Frank Cass

Tauber, Eliezer (1993) The emergence of the Arab movements, London: Frank Cass

Zenner, Walter G. (1982) ‘Arabic-speaking immigrants in North America as Middleman minorities’, Ethnic and Racial Studies



Abdulkarim, A. (1994) ‘The Lebanese diaspora: a community organisation’, Espace Géographique, 23 (3), 217-223

Abou, Selim (1974) Le Liban deracine: immigres dans l’autre Amerique, Paris: Plon

Abu-Laban, Baha (1980) An olive branch on the family tree: the Arabs in Canada, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart

Abu-Laban, Baha and Suleiman, Michael W. (eds) (1989) Arab Americans: continuity and change, Belmont, MA: AAUG Press

Ahdab, Y. (1974) ‘The Detroit Maronite community’ in B. Aswad (ed.) Arab speaking communities in American cities, Staten Island: Centre for Migration Studies

Ahsani, S. (1984) ‘Muslims in Latin America’, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, London

Al Rasheed, Madawi (1993) The meaning of marriage and status in exile: the experience of Iraqui women

Amery, H.A. and Anderson, W.P (1995) International migration and remittances to a Lebanese village. Canadian Geographer, 39(1), 46-58

Ammar, Nellie (1970) ‘They came from the Middle East’, Jamaica Journal

Armbruster, Heidi (1999) 'Syrian Christians in Diaspora', Paper for the conference "New approaches to migration, transnational communities and the transformation of home", University of Sussex, 21-22 September 1999

Aswad, Barbara C. (ed.) (1971) Property control and social strategies: settlers on a Middle Eastern plain, University of Michigan: Ann Arbor

Aswad, Barbara C. (ed.) (1974) Arabic speaking communities in American cities, Long Island, New York: Centre for Migration Studies

Aswad, Barbara C. (ed.) (1991) ‘Yemeni and Lebanese Muslim immigrant women in Dearborn Michigan’, in E. Waugh and S. Abu-Laban (eds) The Muslim family in America, Alberta: University of Alberta

Batrouney, T. and Blatt, P. (1982) Settlement problems of Lebanese in Melbourne, Report for Migrant Settlement Council for Victoria

Batrouney, T. (1988) ‘Lebanese immigration until the 1970’s’ in J. Jupp (ed.) The Australian People, North Ryde, NSW: Angua and Robertson

Baur, P. T. (1954) West African Trade, London: Routledge and Keegan Paul

Berger, M. (1960) ‘Americans from the Arab World’ in J. Kritzeck and R. W. Winder (eds) The world of Islam: studies in honour of Philip K. Hitti, London: Macmillan

Bingley, J. (1952) Mr Khoury, London: Constable

Bruijne, G. (1979) ‘The Lebanese in Suriname’, Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos  y del Caribe, Amsterdam

Corm, G. (1989) ‘The Lebanese diaspora’, Herodote

Desbordes, J. G. (1938) L’immigration libano-syrienne en Afrique occidentale française, Poiters: Renault

Duoun, Taufik (1944) A Emigração Sirio-Libanesa as Terras de Promissão, São Paulo: Tipografia Arabé

Kholy, A. A. (1966) The Arab Moslems in the United States: religion and assimilation, New Haven, CT: College and University Press

Freitag, U and W.G. Clarence-Smith (eds) (1997) Hadrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean 1750-1960, Leiden: Brill

Ghanem, Sadalla A. (1936) Impressões de Viagem, Libano-Brasil: Graphica Brasil

Gordon, David C. (1980) Lebanon: the fragmented nation, London: Croom Helm

Haddad, George (1916) Mount Lebanon to Vermont, Rutland, VT: Tuttle Co.

Haddad, Robert M. (1970) Syrian Christians in a Muslim society, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Hagopian, E. and Paden, A. (1969) The Arab Americans: studies in assimilation, IL: Medina University Press International

Hitti, Phillip (1951) History of Syria, New York: The Macmillan Co.

Hitti, Philip (1967) Lebanon in history, New York: Macmillan

Hooglund, Eric (ed.) (1987) Crossing the waters, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press

Houghton, L. S. (1947) ‘Syrians in the United States’, The Survey, 26

Hourani, Albert (1992) ‘Introduction’ in A. Hourani and N. Shehadi (eds) The Lebanese in the world: a century of emigration, London: I. B. Taurus

Humphrey, Michael (1983) ‘Racism and unemployment among Lebanese immigrants’, in The Arabic community: realities and challenges, Sydney: Arabic Inter-Welfare Agency, 32-5

Humphrey, Michael and Hausfeld, Steven (1984) Family, work and unemployment: a study of Lebanese settlement in Sydney, Canberra: Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

Humphrey, Michael (1986) ‘The Lebanese war and Lebanese immigrant cultures’, in Ethnic and Racial Studies, 9

Karpat, Kemal (1985) ‘The Ottoman emigration to America, 1860-1914’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 17

Karpat, Kemel (1985) Ottoman population, 1830-1914, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press

Katibah, H. I. (1937) ‘Syrian Americans’ in F. J. Brown and J. S. Roucek (eds) Our racial and national minorities, New York: Prentice Hall

Kaufman, E. and Shapira, Y. (1976) ‘Jews and Arabs in Latin America’ in Patterns of Prejudice, London: Institute of Jewish Affairs

Kayal, P. M. and Kayal, J. M. (1975) The Syrian-Lebanese in immigrant experience, Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press

Kayal, P. (1975) The Syrian Lebanese in America, Boston: Twayne

Khalaf, Samir (1987) ‘The background and causes of Lebanese/Syrain immigration to the United States before World War I’, in Eric. Hooglund (ed.) Crossing the waters, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press

Kurban, Taufik (1933) Os Syrios e Lebaneses no Brazil, São Paulo: Libraria Freitas Bastos

La Towsky, R.J. (1984) ‘Eygptian labour abroad’, MERIP Reports,14 (4)

Labaki, Boutros (1987) ‘L’emigration Libanaise en fin de periode Ottomane, 1850-1914’, Hannon, Revue Libanaise de Géographie, 19

Labaki, Boutros (1989) ‘L’emigration des Libanais en Australie des les années 1970’, Studi Migrazione, 247-50

Lawless, R.I. (1995) From Ta’izz to Tyneside: an Arab community in the Norht-East of England during the early twentieth century, Exeter: University of Exeter Press

Leighton, Neil O. (1980) ‘The political economy of a stranger population: the Lebanese of Sierra Leone’ in William A. Shack and Elliot P. Skinner (eds), Strangers in African society, Berkeley: University of California Press

Lesch, A. (1990) ‘Egyptian Labour Migration’ in Ibahim M. Oweiss (ed.) Eygpt, Washington: Georgetown University Press

Mattar, A. (1982) Guia social de la colonia de habla Arabe en Colombia, Barranquilla: Empressa litografica

Malouf, David (1985) ‘Southern skies’, Antipodes, Penguin: Ringwood Victoria

McKay, James (1985) ‘Religious diversity and ethnic cohesion: a three-generational analysis of Syrian-Lebanese Christians in Sydney’, International Migration Review, 19, 318-34

Montiel, L. M. (1981) ‘Lebanese immigration to Mexico’, in Martínez Asiatic Migrations in Latin America, Mexico: Colegio de Mexico

Morner, M. (1985) Adventurers and proletarians: the story of migrants in Latin America, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press

Naff, Alixa (1985) Becoming American: the early Arab immigrant experience, Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press

Naficy, H. (1993) ‘From broadcasting to narrowcasting: Middle Eastern diaspora TV in Los Angeles’, Middle East Report, 23 (1)

Nicholls, David (1981) ‘No hawkers and pedlars: Levantines in the Caribbean’, Ethnic and Racial Studies

Nicholls, David (1986) ‘The “Syrians” of Jamaica’,The Jamaican Historical Review, 15

Norton, Augustus R. (1987) Amal and the Shîa, Struggle for the soul of Lebanon, Austin: University of Texas Press

Orfalea, G. (1988) Before the flames: a quest for the history of Arab Americans, Austin, TX: University of Texan Press

Plummer, B. G. (1981) ‘Race, nationality, and trade in the Caribbean: the Syrians in Haiti, 1903-1934’, International History Review, 3

Ponsati, Hugo L. (1975) Aportes para una resna de la colectivdad árabe tucuamana, Tucuamán: Sociedad Sirio-Libanesa de Tucumán

Price, C. (1984) Lebanese in Australia: demographic aspects, Department of Demography, Australian National University

Rizk, Salom (1943) Syrian Yankee, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran

Saadé, E. K. (1952) Le Liban dans le monde, Beirut

Safa, Elie (1960) L’Emigration Libanaise, Beirut: Université Saint-Josef

Safady, Jamil (ed.) (1971) A cultura Arabe no Brasil, Libano e Síria, São Paulo: Editora Comercial Safady Limitada

Safady, Jamil (1973) O cafe o mascate, São Paulo: Editora Safady, 1-33

Safady, Jorge (1981) Antologia Arabe do Brasil, São Paulo: Editoria Comercial Safady

Saliba, Najib (1983) ‘Emigration from Syria’, in S. Abraham and N. Abraham (eds) Arabs in the New World, Detroit: Wayne State University

Salloum, Habeeb (1987) ‘Arabs in Latin America: Cuba’s disappearing Arab community’, Alminbar, 14

Samhan, Helen H. (1987) ‘Politics and exclusion: the Arab American experience’,  The Journal of Palestine studies, 16 (2)

Suleiman, Michael W. (1984) ‘Arab-Americans: a community profile’, Journal: Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 5 (1), 29-35

Suleiman, Michael W. (1987) ‘Early Arab-Americans: the search for identity’ in E. J. Hooglund (ed.) Crossing the waters, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press

Tannous, F. I. (1943) ‘Acculturation of an Arab-Syrian community in the deep South’, American Sociological Review, 8 (3)

Tanus, Jorge B. (1945) O Libano e os Libaneses no Brazil, Rio de Janeiro

van der Laan, H. L. (1975) The Lebanese Traders in Sierra Leone, Netherlands: Mouton

Winder, R. B. (1962) ‘The Lebanese in West Africa’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 4

Wigle, Laurel and Abraham, Sameer (1974) ‘Arab nationalism in America: The Dearborn Arab community’ in D. Hartman (ed.) Immigrants and migrants: the Detroit ethnic experience, Detroit, MI.: New University Thought




A people to whom the appelation ‘diaspora’ has often been applied. Historically Armenia was a separate region, though now is spread between north-east Turkey and the former Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia. Armenians have a distinctive language (with some Caucasian features) and are either affiliated to the Catholic Armenian Church or the Armenian Orthodox Church. Their culture was highly developed in fine art, architecture and sculpture, reaching its zenith in the fourteenth century. A traumatic event occurred during the First World War when the Turks deported two-thirds of the Armenians (1.75 million people) to Syria and Palestine. It is now widely accepted (though still fiercely disputed by Turkish sources) that some 600,000 Armenians were either killed or died of starvation during this mass displacement. It was the twentieth century’s first major example of what has come to be known as ‘ethnic cleansing’. Very few Armenians continue to live in Turkey, some 4.15 live in the former USSR (about half in the Armenian Republic itself). Significant diasporic communities have settled in France and the United States. The US Armenians are particularly successful in economic terms and are said to have a per capita standard of living higher than virtually any other group. With the collapse of state communism the bonding between the Armenian diaspora and its homeland has been given a new impetus



Adalian, Rouben Paul (1989) ‘The historical evolution of the Armenian diasporas’, paper written for the Armenian Assembly of America

Aftandilian, George C. (1981) Armenia: vision of a republic. The independence lobby in America, 1918–1927, Boston: Carles River Books

AGBU (1983) The AGBU: a mission in service to the Armenian people, Saddle Brook, NJ: AGBU

Aharonian, Aharon G. (1983) Intermarriage and the Armenian American community, Shrewsbury, MA: Aharonian

Alamuddin, Ida (1970) Papa Kuenzler and the Armenians, London: Heinemann

Altounyan, Taqui (1990) Chimes from a wooden bell: a memoir, London: I.B. Tauris

Amurian, A. and M. Kasheff (1986) ‘Armenians of modern Iran’ in Ehsan Yasshater (ed.), Encyclopaedia Iranica, 2 (5), London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Anon (1984) We believe: a look at the creeds of the Armenian Church, LA: Western Diocese of the Armenian Church of North America

Antreassian, Jack (1979) The confessions of Kitchoonie, New York: Ashod Press

Antreassian, Jack (1984) Definitions and deflations: a personal dictionary of terms commonly misconstrued in the Armenian–American community of the 1970s and early 1980s, New York: Ashod Press

Antreassian, Jack (1987) Kohar: letters to a grandchild, New York: Ashod Press

Apramian, J. (1976) The Georgetown boys, Hamilton, Ontario: The Printing House

Arat, Mari K. (1990) Die Wiener Mechitharisten. Armenische Mönche in der Diaspora, Wien, Köln: Böhlau

Armenian Alumni Association (1987) Armenian language and history instruction within Los Angeles primary and secondary schools: a survey 1985–1986, LA: Armenian Alumni Association

Armenian Assembly of America (1973) Summary report of first national convocation, Airlie, VA 5–7 May 1972, and regional assemblies 1972–1973, Washington DC: The Armenian Assembly

Armenian Assembly, California Council (1981) Armenians in the eighties: prospects and challenges, proceedings of conference, 11–13 September, Berkeley: University of California

Armenian Assembly of America (1985) The Armenian genocide and America’s outcry: a compilation of US documents 1890–1923, proceedings of conference, 11–13 September, Washington DC: The Armenian Assembly

Armenian Assembly of America (1987) Armenians in America: celebrating the first century, Boston MA: The Armenian Assembly

Armenian Assembly of America (1987a) American academicians and lobbying of the Armenian genocide resolution, Washington DC: The Armenian Assembly

Armenian Assembly of America (1988) Armenian genocide: resource guide, Washington DC: The Armenian Assembly

Armenian Historical Research Association (AHRA) (1965) The Turkish Armenocide (the genocide of the Armenians by the Turks), University of Pennsylvania Printing Office: AHRA

Armenian, H. K. et al. (1993) ‘Patterns of infant mortality from Armenian parish records: A study from 10 countries of the diaspora, 1737-1982’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 22 (3)

Arpee, Leon (1946) A history of Armenian Christianity from the beginning to our own time, New York: The Armenian Missionary Association of America

Atamian, Sarkis (1955) The Armenian community: the historical development of a social and ideological conflict, New York: Philosophical Library

Atvov, Turkkaya (1984) A ‘statement’ wrongly attributed to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Ankara: Faculty of Political Science

Avakian, Arra S. (1977) The Armenians in America, Minneapolis: Lerner

Avakian, Lindy Vahag (1965) The cross and the crescent, Los Angeles: De Vorss

Ayanian, Mark Armen and John Z. Ayanian (1987) ‘Armenian political violence on American network news: an analysis of content’, Armenian Review, 49 (1–157), 13–29

Azarya, Victor (1984) The Armenian quarter of Jerusalem: urban life behind monastery walls, Berkeley: University of California Press

Azarya, Victor (1988/9) ‘Armenians in Jerusalem: a look behind the walls of St James monastery, Israel', Social Science Research, 6 (1), 24–39

Bakalian, Anny (1993) Armenian-Americans: from being to feeling American, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction

Baliozian, Ara (1979) Armenia observed, New York: Ararat

Baliozian, Ara (1980) The Armenias: their history and culture, New York: Ararat Press

Baliozian, Ara (1984) The Armenian genocide and the west, Kitchener, Ontario: Impressions READY:

Baliozian, Ara (1987) Fragmented dreams: Armenians in diaspora, Saddle Brook, NJ: Impressions

Bamberger, Joan (1986–7) ‘Family and kinship in an Armenian–American community’, Journal of Armenian Studies, 3 (1–2), 76–86

Barber, Noel (1990) Prelude to genocide, New York: Ararat

Bardakjian, Kevork B. (1977) Hitler and the Armenian genocide, Cambridge, MA: Zoryan Institute Special Report Number 3.5

Baronian, Haig (1983) Barefoot boy from Anatolia, LA: Abril Printing Company

Bedoukian, Kerop (1978/9) Some of us survived: the story of an Armenian boy, New York: Farrar, Strauss Giroux

Bek, Lise, Lehmann Henning and Lars Kaerulf Moller (eds) (1982) Aarhus Armeniaca, Acta Jutlandica, Humanities series 56, Åarhus

Binyan, Narciso (1979) ‘Arabs and Armenians in Latin America’, Prejudice, 13 (6), 5–11

Birant, Mehmet Ali and Ibrahim Erol Ataer (eds) (1983) Armenian terror, Istanbul: AND Kartpostal ve Yayinlari

Bjorklund, Ulf (1993) 'Armenia remembered and remade: evolving issues in a diaspora', Ethnos, 85 (3-4), 335-360

Boase, T. S. R. (ed.) (1978) The Cilian kingdom of Armenia, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press

Boyajian, Dickran H. (1972), Armenia, the case for a forgotten genocide, Westwood, NJ: Educational Book Crafters

Bryce, James Viscount (1916) The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman empire. Documents presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden by James Viscount Bryce, Misc. No. 31 (1916) Command 8325, London: HMSO (See also under An anthology of historica: writings on the Armenian massacres of 1915 by Viscount James Bryce and others, Beirut: Hamaskaine Armenian Cultural Association, 1970)

Burney, Charles and David Marshall Lang (1971) The peoples of the hills: Ancien Ararat and Caucasus, London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson

Carswell, John (1968) New Julfa, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Center for Applied Linguistics (1981) The Armenians, Washington DC: Language and Orientation Resource Center, CA, Fact Sheet Series, 6

Chakmakjian, Hagop Aphaham (1985) The Armenian evangelical movement: Why needed, why separated: an inquiry, Fresno, CA: Liberty Printing Company

Chalabian, Antranig (1988) General Antranik and the Armenian revolutionary movement, Southfield, MI: A. Chalabian

Chaliand, Gerard and Yves Ternon (1983) Le genocide des Armenians 1915–1917, the Armenians, from genocide to resistance, London: Zed Books

Chichekian, Garo (1987) ‘Linguistic assimilation and cultural completeness of Armenian communities in Canada’, Armenian Review, 40 (3–159), 1–15

Chopourian, G. H. (1972) The Armenian evangelical reformation: causes and effects, New York: Armenian Missionary Association of America

Commission of the Churches on International Affairs (1984) Armenia: the continuing tragedy, Geneva: World Council of Churches

Dadrian, Vakhan (1992) 'The role of the Turkish military in the destruction of Orttoman Armenians: a study in historical continuities', Journal of political and military sociology, 20, 257-288

Dadrian, Vakhan (1995) The history of the Armenian genocide: ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus, Providence, RI: Berghan

Davidson, H. Roderic (1948) 'The Armenian crisis1912-1914', American Historical Review, 53, 481-505

Der-Karabetian, Aghop (1980) ‘Relation of two cultural identities of Armenian–Americans’, Psychological Reports, (47), 123–8

Der-Karabetian, Aghop (1981) ‘Armenian identity: comparative and context-bound’, Armenian Review, 34 (1–133), 25–31

Der-Karabetian, Aghop (1983) ‘Multiple social identity as a reflection of modernity’, Armenian Review, 100–5

Der-Karabetian, Aghop and Armine Proudian Der-Karabetian (1981) California Armenians: 1981 survey, University of La Verne, Armenian Assembly, California Council & Resource Center, Report No. 3

Derogy, Jacques (1990) Resistance and revenge: the Armenian assassination of the Turkish leaders responsible for the 1915 massacres and deportations, translated by A. M. Berrett, New Brunswick and London: Transaction

Des Pres, T. (1986) ‘On governing narratives: the Turkish Armenian case’, The Yale Review, 517-31

Doty, C. Stewart (1989/90) ‘The intellectual of the Quebec diaspora: the case of Henri d’Arles’, Journal of Canadian Studies, (24), 61–71

Etmekjian, James (1985) History of Armenian literature: fifth to thirteenth centuries, New York: St. Vartan Press

Etmekjian, Lillian (1985) Toynbee, Turks and Armenians, Cambridge, MA: Zoryan Institute

Gelenian, Ara Arthur (1985) The Armenians in Rhode Island: ancient roots to present experiences, Providence, Rhode Island: The Rhode Island Heritage Commission

Guroian, Vigen (1988) ‘Post-holocaust political morality: the litmus of Bitburg and the Armenian genocide resolution’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 3 (3), 305–22

Hagopian, John D. (1982) Kiss me, I’m Armenian, Phoenix Ariz: Jurobian

Hairapetian, Armen (1984) ‘“Race problems” and the Armenian genocide: the state department file’, Armenian Review, 37 (1), 41–59

Hall, Edward T. (1977) Beyond culture, New York: Anchor/Doubleday

Hamalian, Leo (1978) Burn after reading, New York: Ararat Press

Hamalian, Leo (1980) As others see us: the Armenian image in literature, New York: Ararat Press

Hamburger, Philip (1986) ‘Searching for Gregorian’ (two-part article), New Yorker, 14 and 21 April

Harney, Robert (ed.) (1982) ‘Armenians in Ontario’, Polyphony, 4 (2)

Henry, Sheila Eileen (1978) Cultural persistence and socio-economic mobility: a comparative study of assimilation among Armenians and Japanese in Los Angeles, San Francisco: R & E  Research Associates

Hintlian, Kevork (1976) History of the Armenians in the Holy Land, Jerusalem: St James Press

Hovannisian, Richard G. (1980) The Armenian holocaust. A bibliography relating to the deportations, massacres and dispersion of the Armenian people 1915-1923, Cambridge, MA: Armenian Heritage Press

Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.) (1981) The Armenian image in history and literature, Malibu, CA: Undena

Hovannisian, Richard G. (1982) The Armenian case: toward a just solution, address to the world affairs council of Pittsburgh, Jerusalem: Hai Tad, The Armenian Case Committee

Hovannisian, Richard G. (1984) ‘The United States inquiry and the Armenian question, 1917–1919’, Armenian Review, 37 (1), 146–63

Hovannisian, R.G. (1986) The Armenian genocide in perspective, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction

Hovannisian, R.G. (ed.) (1992) The Armenian genocide: history, politics, ethics, New York: St.Martin's 

Hovannisian, R.G. (1993) ' The Armenian diaspora and the narrative of power' in Constas, DC and Platias, AG (eds), Diasporas in world politics - the Greeks in comparative perspective, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Hovanessian, Martine (1993) La Diaspora et les territoires de l'atérité, Idées, 5, 59-61

Jordan, Robert Paul (1978) ‘The proud Armenians’, National Geographic, 153 (6),  846–73

Kalamkerian, Louise (1986) Women in the Armenian church, LA: Western Diocese of the Armenian Church of North America

Katchadourian, Herant (1977) ‘Culture and psychopathology’ in L. Carl Brown and Norman Itzhowitz (eds.), Psychological dimensions of Near Eastern studies, Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 103–25

Kelekian, Susan (1987) Retracing the footsteps of our forefathers, Antelias, Lebanon: Armenian Catholicosate of Cicilia

Khayadjian, E. (1979) ‘La communauté arménienne de Marseille’, Marseille Revue Municipale, 3 (118), 31–9

Kherdian, David (1979) The road from home: the story of an Armenian girl, New York: Greenwillow

Kherdian, David (1981) Finding home, New York: Greenwillow

Khorenats’i, Moses (1978) History of the Armenians, translated by Robert W. Thomson, Harvard: Harvard University Press

Kirkland, James I. (1981) 'Maintenance of Armenian identity and ethnicity in Australia', Ethnic Groups, 4(4), 255-94

Kolossov, V., Galkina, T. and M. Kouibychev (1994) 'La géographie des diasopras: une approche théorique et le cas des communautés arménienne, juive et grecques dans l'ex-URSS, L'Espace géographique

Kraabel, A. T. (1984) ‘New evidence of the Samaritan diaspora has been found on Delos’, Biblical Archaeologist, (47), 44–6

Krikorian, Mesrob K. (1977) Armenians in the service of the Ottoman Empire 1860–1908, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Kulhanjian, Gary A. (1975) An abstract of the historical and sociological aspects of Armenian immigration to the United States, 1890–1930, San Francisco and Saratoga: R & E Research Associates

Lang, David Marshall (1969) ‘Religion and nationalism: a case study: the Caucusus’, Ararat Quarterly, 10 (1), 14–21

Lang, David Marshall (1978) Armenia: cradle of civilization, London: Allen & Unwin

Lang, David Marshall and Christopher J. Walker (1987) The Armenians, London: Minority Rights Group, Report No. 32

Lepsius, Johannes (1897) Armenia and Europe, an indicament, London: Hodder and Stoughton

Libaridian, Gerald J. (ed.) (1984) The genocide of the Armenian people, a special issue of Armenian Review, 37 (1)

Maibbaum, M. (1985) ‘Armenians in California’, Patterns of Prejudice, 1(1), 25-32

Malik, Farah (1990) A survey of the Armenian community in London, London: London Research Centre

Megerditchian, Ervantder (1970) The life of an Armenian immigrant, North Quincy, MA: Christopher Publishing House

Melikian, Richard G. (1986) The Armenian answer to the Armenian question, Phoenix, AZ: Best Western Press

Miller, Donald E. (1988) ‘The burden of memory, first generation: patterns of remembering’, Humanities Network

Miller, Donald E. and Lorna Touryan Miller (1986) ‘An oral history perspective on responses to the Armenian genocide’ in Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) The Armenian genocide in perspective, New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 187–203

Miller, Donald, E. and L.T. Miller (1991) 'Memory and identity across the generations: a case study of Armenian survivors and their progeny', Qualitative Sociology, 14, 13-38

Miller, Donald E. and Lorna Touryan Miller (1993) Survivors: an oral history of the Armenian genocide, Berkely: University of California Press

Minasian, Edward (1985/6) ‘Forty days of Musa Dagh: the film that was denied’, Journal of Armenian Studies, 11 (2)

Minassian, Edward (1982) The Armenian community of California: the first one hundred years, Los Angeles: The Armenian Resource Centre

Minassian, John (1986) Many hills yet to climb: memoirs of an Armenian deportee, Santa Barbara, CA: Jim Cook

Mirak, Robert (1977) ‘On new soil: the Armenian orthodoxy and Armenian Protestant churches in the new world to 1915’ in Randall M. Miller and Thomas D. Marzik (eds) Immigrants and religion in urban America, Philadelphia: Temple University Press

Mirzaian, Father Aramais (compiler) (1975) Armenians: a pilgrim people in ‘Terra Australia’, 28 Mimosa Street, Frenchs Forest 2086, Sydney: NSW

Mirzaian, Father Aramais and Charles Price (1980) The wandering Armenians, Father A. Mirzaian, Sydney

Mouradian, Claire (1988) ‘L’armée soviétique et la diaspora Arménie. Diaspora: mémoire et modernité’, Le Temps Modernes, (504–6), 259–304

Nelson, Harold (1954) ‘Intermarriage among Fresno Armenians’, Sociologus, 5 (4/2)

Nersessian, Sirarpie Der (1969) The Armenians, London: Thames & Hudson

Nersoyan, Bishop Tirian (1967) ‘Armenians in the United States: an interview’, Ararat Quarterly, 8 (2), 74–82

  Bishop Nersoyan clarifies the position of the Armenian Church in relation to the other Eastern Churches, shedding light on the theological ‘issue’ between the Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians

Nichanian, Marc and Remo Pomponio (eds) (1979) La struttura negata: cultura Armena nella diaspora, Milan: ICOM (Institute for the Spreading of Knowledge of Minority Cultures and for the Widening of Relations between Minority and Non-ruling Groups)

Norehad, Bedros (1966) The Armenian general benevolent union, New York: AGBU

Ordjanian, Anahid V. (1980) Armenia: crossroads of culture, New York: Armenian Exhibit Committee of the Advisory Council for Armenian Studies at Columbia University

Oshagan, V. ‘Literature of the Armenian diaspora’, World Literature Today, 60, 224-8

Papazian, K. S. (1979) Merchants from Ararat: a brief history of Armenian trade through the ages, New York: Ararat

Papazian, P. (1986) ‘The Armenian nation and the Ottoman empire, roots of terrorism’, The Midwest Quarterly, 215-29

Parsegian, Vazken L. (ed.) (1975) Human rights and genocide, 1975: the hope, the reality and still the hope: a status report, New York: Diocese of the Armenian Church of America

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